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What is excavation as a part of construction?
Excavation is a part of construction which includes digging, trenching or drilling into the earth to make way for the installation of new structures, such as building foundations. In most cases excavation activities are done by hand but increasingly they are done with heavy machinery such as excavators and bulldozers.
What are the different types of excavation?
3 types of excavation are backhoe excavation, box cutting, and open cut excavation.
What is Box Cutting Excavation?
When you want to build a fence or plant some flowers in your garden, the easiest way to do it is dig a hole (excavation) to put them in. If you've ever watched construction workers digging up ground when building new roads or houses, you might have noticed that they usually dig a hole in a square shape. The process of digging a hole in a square or rectangular shape is called box cutting. It allows workers to more easily perform tasks such as laying pipe, burying cables, and so on. To achieve this kind of excavation, workers typically use one of two methods: hand-digging or drilling and blasting.
What is Open Cut Excavation?
It is a type of excavation where normally the surface material is not removed, but it is reduced over the area to be excavated. So for example, if an open cast mine was being developed, after all the coal has been removed from the ground, you will see large pits in the ground. These are excavations where the ground has been removed, but not back-filled with earth or other materials.
Open cast mining is used to extract coal, oil sands and other minerals from the ground. Open cast mines are typically large strip mines on land, because it is easier to do this excavation technique on land rather than underwater or underground.
Most of the excavation techniques associated with open cast mining are also used in normal construction projects. For example, when constructing a new building or laying down roads, you will need to make holes in the ground. These holes can be created by hand-digging or drilling and blasting, depending on how large they are. However this type of excavation is also done on a much larger scale by removing massive amounts of material to gain access to areas that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to reach.
What is backhoe excavation?
Backhoe excavation involves the use of a backhoe or front-end loader in an excavation process. The machine digs out soil at the required depth and loads it onto trucks or conveyor belts. This type of excavation is known as the best option for construction sites that are close to existing structures, utilities and other facilities.
The backhoe loader can be used along with a trencher machine which will lay pipes over large areas of land where it is difficult to bring in hoes. A trencher cuts through the ground using a blade and inserts pipes.
What is machine digging?
Machine digging is defined as making an excavation by means of a machine or piece of equipment rather than by hand or with explosives. It is performed using excavators, backhoes, loaders, bulldozers and similar heavy machinery. This type of excavation is considered less invasive compared to other kinds of excavation since it leaves the existing topsoil undisturbed.
Machine digging may be used when construction involves driving piles. Piles are driven into the ground to support bridge abutments, piers and other structures. Excavating with machine digging is more cost effective than other types of excavation like backhoe excavation which disturbs large areas of land by removing topsoil.
Machine digging can be used for excavations that are generally smaller in size compared to other excavation types. It can be used for excavations which are close to existing structures, utilities and other facilities.
What is home excavation?
Home excavation is defined as digging by hand or with simple machinery such as a backhoe, shovels and forklifts. It can also be done using excavators and bulldozers on smaller projects. Backhoes and skid steers are often used for home excavation in some countries.
This type of excavation is generally preferred for sites that are close to buildings and other structures that could be damaged if large, mobile equipment were brought in. Home excavation is considered less invasive than other types of excavations such as machine digging and backhoe excavation .
What is the importance of excavation?
Excavation is the process of digging down to a lower level. In construction, excavation is performed as an important part in foundation work for buildings or other structures. It involves the removal of soft soil from beneath a building site. This allows room for a solid foundation base and reduces the chance of future sinking problems associated with standing on soft ground. The process of excavation can be performed either manually or with heavy machinery.
If the project involves the construction of a basement, required excavations can be made by hand. This method is often used when the site area involved is relatively smaller and close to existing structures such as neighboring houses. Alternatively, if larger areas are required to be dug out, excavators, backhoes and bulldozers can be used to complete the job. This type of excavation is called 'machine digging'.
The process begins by removing topsoil from the site. Then ground water must be removed if it is present in high levels. Excavation work then continues until a solid base for foundations or walls is completed
What is an excavator machine?
An excavator is a construction machine that is used to dig or carry out load operations, such as loading material. In modern uses, the term generally refers to a small, wheeled vehicle with a scoop on the front and an extensible boom with a digging bucket attached which is used for excavating and moving material from one place to another. A backhoe is a tractor-like vehicle with a front loader/muscle and bucket used as a stable platform to provide greater stability when digging, especially in loose or wet ground.
What is backhoe loader?
A combination of the words 'back' and 'loader'. A piece of construction equipment having both front-end loader arms (known as hoe) as well as a rear backhoe. Backhoe loaders typically have four wheels on the ground while most other types of construction equipment have two or more, making it easier to move from one place to another.
What are the different types of excavators?
There are several types of excavators depending on the use and purpose that they will be put into.
- Hydraulic Excavator - One type is a hydraulic excavator, which uses a hydraulic system for mechanical components such as the lower arm and bucket cylinder. This allows the machine to dish out more power and control, allowing it to dig into tougher materials that might be resistant.
- Electrical Excavator - An electrical excavator is another type of excavator. An electrical excavator can be identified by its drive system which is powered by an electric motor rather than a hydraulic system. This means they are quieter when compared to the hydraulic machines, however the disadvantage is that they lack the power of a hydraulic excavator. It consists of a boom, stick (or dipper arm), bucket and cab on a rotating platform. Hydraulic excavation machines can move through 360 degrees without the need to move the base of the machine, making them highly maneuverable.
- Compact Excavator - A compact excavator is another type and is very maneuverable and easy to use, making it perfect for use in building construction and other areas. The compact size means that it can fit into smaller spaces and tight turning circles which allows it to be used in confined spaces.
- Track Excavator - A track excavator, otherwise known as a track hoe, is another type of excavator which has two undercarriage supported tracks. It gives the machine good mobility and stability on softer ground types such as mud, sand or snow. A backhoe digger is yet another type of excavator which consists of an arm that can be raised or lowered into the ground and has a bucket on the end. The backhoe can be used to dig into confined spaces that cannot be accessed via an excavator's arm, making it very useful when you need to get in close.
- Car Excavator - Car excavators are another type of excavator machine which consists of one track undercarriage with front wheels that swivel. The front wheels are used to steer the machine and can be raised off the ground which will allow you to turn on its own axis.
- Wheel Excavator - A wheel excavator or track-type tractor is another type of excavator that consists of two front wheels and a backhoe on tracks to give it greater stability. When compared to an ordinary tracked tractor, they have four small wheels which allow them to move along roads and other surfaces that might be difficult for a conventional machine.
- Compact Track Excavator - A compact track excavator is another type of excavator and has two front wheels on tracks and two rear wheels for steering. It is highly maneuverable so they can get into tighter spaces such as roads or building sites which conventional tracked machines cannot access. They are usually used in public work projects.
- Hoe Rammer - A hoe rammer is another type of excavator which has a hoe ram instead of an arm. The advantage to this machine is that it can be used for digging or breaking applications, making them useful pieces of equipment when you need to break up tough materials such as submerged rocks, frozen ground or rock faces. A hydraulic breaker is designed to remove concrete structures such as buildings, bridges or even driveways.
- Rotary Hydraulic Breaker - A rotary hydraulic breaker is another type of excavator which consists of a spinning head with blades on the end which uses hydraulics for propulsion so it does not need an engine. The advantage to this style of machine is that it can break through tougher surfaces like rocks, frozen ground and concrete structures. A hydraulic breaker is used for breaking up tougher materials such as rocks, broken asphalt and frozen ground. An attachment this type of excavator has is a ripper which can be attached underneath the machine to help loosen and break up tough surfaces on softer ground like sand or dirt. The ripper consists of two, angled tines which are pulled back and forth to break up the ground.
What causes damage during Excavation?
During excavation projects there are many things that can cause damage to your property. Digging machines like excavators and backhoes can tear up your grass, destroy your flowers or even take out chunks of yard if precautions aren't taken beforehand. To avoid the damage during excavation you should:
- Mark cisterns and water lines with bright paint or flags
- Mark trees with bright paint or tape
- Remove anything that can be damaged by the machine including shrubs, flowers and utility lines. This should include anything within 30 feet of where you are excavating.
- If you have power lines running at the edge of your property do not assume that they are buried underground because it is possible for them to be on top of the ground. Since it's likely they are on the surface, contact your power company to get them marked so you can avoid accidently digging into them.
- Dig shallow trenches only 6 inches deep so you don't break any utility connections
- Keep all traffic off of excavated areas until bricks and the top path have been repaired
- Once the area has been excavated, cover it back up with 2 inches of dirt and then put down a piece of plywood to prevent from walking on the bricks until they have time to set. The plywood will also help keep your bricks from being damaged by vehicles or lawn equipment.
After you get the all clear that you can resume normal activities, keep traffic off of the bricks while they set. It should take 10 to 12 days for the bricks to completely set.
When your project is finished cut back any soil which has encroached onto your walkway, then fill over it with the original dirt and smooth it out so you get a clean edge.